Clinical pharmacy encourages pharmacists and pharmacy support staff to shift their focus from product orientation to more direct engagement with patients, to maximise the beneits that individuals obtain from the medicines they take. Since the late 1980s the practice of clinical pharmacy has grown from a collection of patient-related functions to a process in which all actions are undertaken with the intention of achieving explicit outcomes for the patient. In doing so clinical pharmacy has moved forward to embrace the philosophy of pharmaceutical care and, more recently, the principles of medicines optimization. The delivery of pharmaceutical care is dependent on the practice of clinical pharmacy, but the key feature of care is that the practitioner takes responsibility for a patient’s medicines-related needs and is held accountable for that commitment. None of the deinitions of pharmaceutical care is limited by reference to a speciic professional group. Although pharmacists and pharmacy support staff would expect to play a central role in pharmaceutical care, it is essentially a cooperative system that embraces the contribution of other professionals and patients.